Monthly Philippine Agro-climatic Review and Outlook

October 2020


  • During the month of October, the weather systems that affected the country were the southwest monsoon (SW), intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), easterlies, localized thunderstorms, low pressure areas (LPAs) and tropical cyclones (TCs). Five (5) TCs namely: Tropical Depression (TD) “Nika” (Oct 11-12), TD “Ofel” (Oct 13-16), Typhoon (TY) “Pepito” (Oct 19-22), TY “Quinta” (Oct 23-27) and STY “Rolly” (Oct 30 - Nov 3) have entered/developed inside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) within the period.
  • The northeasterly wind flow occasionally prevailed over Northern Luzon while southwest monsoon continued to bring significant amount of rainfall mostly over Southern Luzon and several areas in Visayas. During the second dekad, TD “Nika” enhanced the southwest monsoon while TD “Ofel” affected Eastern Visayas, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Metro Manila and Bataan during its passage. TY “Pepito” was in Tropical Storm category when it crossed the landmass of Luzon, affecting the southern portion of Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), Ilocos Sur and Quezon. It intensified into a typhoon before leaving the PAR. After this, TY “Quinta” strengthened before its landfall and gave bad weather over Bicol Region, MIMAROPA, CALABARZON, Metro Manila, Central Luzon, Northern Samar and Panay Island. During the latter days of October, STY “Rolly” began to pose threat over Bicol Region.
  • Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas):
    • Wet – Most areas of the country
    • Moist – Most areas of Ilocos Region, extreme Northern Luzon, Puerto Princesa, Aborlan, Coron Island, Bohol, Misamis Oriental, Davao City
    • Dry – rest of the country

  • Near to above normal rainfall were observed in most areas of the country except in Ilocos Region where below to near normal conditions were experienced (Figure 1). Tayabas Synoptic Station recorded the highest total monthly rainfall (1229.3 mm).
  • Slightly above to above average surface air temperatures were felt over most parts of the country (Figure 2). The highest maximum temperature for the month of October has reached 35.6°C in Guiuan, Eastern Samar (Oct 23) while the coldest temperature of 14.2°C was recorded in Baguio City, Benguet (Oct 31).
  • ENSO Alert System Status is La Niña, which suggests that La Niña condition is present in the tropical Pacific.

  • Land and Seedbed Preparation – (irrigated rice and corn fields, other cash crop plantation, small and medium farm areas)
  • Crops and Farm activities in Bicol Region were badly affected by Typhoon Quinta and Super Typhoon Rolly;
  • In CALABARZON, farms and crops as well as its activities were slightly affected;
  • In most farms of the country, farmers continue to prepare the land and seedbeds for irrigated, rainfed and upland farms
    • Planting and Transplanting (broadcasting / direct seeding – for rice, corn, conventional way/ by rows - other cash crops)
    • Type II Climate (Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, eastern part of Quezon and Aurora, eastern part of Leyte and eastern part of Northern Samar, large portion of eastern Mindanao) – planting activities in parts of Bicol Region were affected by the typhoons which crossed and devastated the area. Eleven provinces in other parts of the Climate Type were planting chayote, carrot, squash, lettuce, eggplant, condol, mustard, sweet pepper, cassava, potato, sweet potato, okra, ginger, patola, sitao, cadios, cauliflower, bountiful beans, pepper, cucumber, garlic, onion, cabbage, gabi, corn, ubi and peanut.
    • Type III Climate (western part of Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, east of Mt. Province, southern Quezon, Bondoc Peninsula, Masbate, Romblon, northeast Panay, eastern Negros, central and southern Cebu, part of northern Mindanao, most of eastern Palawan) planting of corn, tomato, sweet pepper, cauliflower, cucumber, patola, pechay, upo, squash, ginger and lettuce took place. Transplanting the seedlings of lettuce, mustard, sweet pepper, sweet peas, melon, cauliflower, cabbage, cucumber, celery, peanut, squash, cadios, patani, upo, eggplant, okra, patola, corn and mungo were done.
    • Type IV Climate (Batanes provinces, northeast Luzon, western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, western Leyte, northern Negros, and most of central and southern Mindanao) – planting activities in areas of Bicol Region were halted because of the enormous catastrophic effect caused by the typhoons. In other parts of the Climate Type 1V, some provinces were doing planting and transplanting of corn, pechay, patani, celery, mustard, lettuce, ampalaya, soybean, upo, cassava, sweet potato, mungo, cucumber, okra, cauliflower, ginger, peanut, sweet pepper, pechay, onion, ampalaya, cabbage, gabi, chayote, condol and corn.

    • Establishment Stage (germination, pre-emergence, seedling, transplanting) – chayote, carrot, squash, lettuce, eggplant, condol, mustard, sweet pepper, cassava, potato, sweet potato, okra, ginger, patola, sitao, mustard, cadios, cauliflower, bountiful beans, pepper, cucumber, garlic, onion, cabbage, gabi, corn, ubi and peanut – in some newly planted farm areas of the country
    • Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development) - Other high yielding cash crops such as munggo, sitao, patani, eggplant, ampalaya, cadios, mustard, celery, cucumber, lettuce, sweet pepper, pechay, patani, okra, ginger, peanut, onion, gabi, chayote and corn - in most farm areas that were not affected by typhoons.
    • Maturing/Ripening/ Harvesting Stage
    • Luzon: Rice and corn, seasonal fruits and vegetables such as avocado, banana, pineapple, lanzones, citrus, dragon fruit, rambutan, papaya, guyabano, onion leeks, native pechay, cauliflower, kangkong, alugbati, malunggay, wombok cabbage, celery, mustard, lettuce, spinach, carrot, chayote, baguio beans, white onion, broccoli, upo, sweet pepper, gabi, sweet potato, ubi, cassava, ginger, arrowroot, potato, red onion and sitao,
    • Visayas: Rice and corn, mango, pomelo, jackfruit, squash, rambutan, chayote, eggplant, guyabano, banana, cucumber, santol, upo, sitao, avocado, lemon, banana, papaya, tomato, pechay, patola, carrots, dragon fruit, sweet potato and ampalaya.
    • Mindanao: Rice and corn, jackfruit, durian, pineapple, papaya, lemon, rambutan, squash, lanzones, pechay, mangosteen, marang, guyabano, eggplant, carrot, cabbage, ampalaya, tomato, pomelo, avocado, cucumber, lettuce, celery, tomatoes, kangkong and sitao
    • Farm Operations: (some farm activities are affected by Community Quarantine)
    • Farm activities and operations were affected by Typhoon Quinta and Super Typhoon Rolly specially in Bicol Region while Region 4B was slightly affected.
    • In areas affected by the weather disturbance, cutting of excess leaves and branches of big trees, were being done, as well as checking of farm houses, barns, poultry and piggery houses. The current water level in the field was also checked and investigated.
    • Repaired and cleaned destroyed canals, ditches and damaged light-built structures.
    • In this time of COVID-19 pandemic, the agricultural technicians and farmers in areas not affected by the typhoons may continue to share and browse some tips on potential crop production, early warning for pests and diseases infestations and water management strategies for specific areas by visiting the website of SARAI project ( and ACIAR project.
    • For daily farm weather and climate conditions, agricultural technicians, farmers and farm enthusiasts can visit the website of PAGASA ( and/or see the Payong PAGASA mobile application.
  • The weather systems that will likely affect the whole country during the month of November are the Northeast monsoon (NE), trough of LPAs, high-pressure areas (HPAs), localized thunderstorms, easterlies and one to three TCs may enter or develop inside the PAR.
  • Northeast (NE) monsoon is expected to prevail during the month of November.
  • Most parts of the country will have higher chances of experiencing near normal to above normal rainfall conditions (Figure 4).
  • Generally, near to above average temperatures will be felt in most areas of the country (Figure 5).
  • Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 10.7ºC – 27.5ºC for upland farms while 19ºC – 39.4ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 19.5ºC – 36.8ºC; and the upland farms in Mindanao will have 15.0ºC – 33.5ºC and 19.0ºC – 36.5ºC for lowland farms.
  • La Niña is present in the tropical pacific and most likely to continue until December to February 2021 (Figure 6). La Niña is associated with above normal rainfall conditions over most areas of the country during the last quarter of the year and early months of the following year.
PAGASA will continue to closely monitor the climate conditions that may affect the country and updates shall be issued as appropriate. For further information, please contact the Climatology and Agrometeorology Division (CAD) at telephone number 8284-0800, local 905.



Chief, CAD