Monthly Philippine Agro-climatic Review and Outlook

January 2020


  • During the month of January, the weather systems that affected the country are the northeast monsoon, tail-end of a cold front, easterlies, Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), and low pressure area (LPA).
  • The maximum total monthly rainfall was recorded over Tacloban, Leyte where it received 565.6 mm. The place also received the maximum total dekad rainfall recorded with an amount of 239.6 mm during the second dekad. The next maximum monthly rainfall recorded was 507.7 mm over Legaspi, Albay which has also the maximum total dekad rainfall recorded with an amount of 296.5 mm during the first dekad. The third highest total monthly rainfall of 446.8 mm was recorded over Masbate, Masbate.

  • Predominantly, cloudy skies were experienced over Cagayan Valley, Aurora, Quezon, Romblon, Mindoro, Catanduanes, Masbate, Samar and Leyte while the rest of the country experienced partly cloudy to cloudy skies. Rains were mostly experienced over Infanta, Davao, Tacloban, Alabat and Infanta Quezon and Baler, Aurora. For the whole first dekad, rains were recorded over Tacloban and Davao while for the whole second dekad, rains were experienced over Infanta, Quezon. During the third dekad, it almost rained for the whole period over Davao.
  • Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas):
    • Wet –Aparri, Aurora, Quezon Provinces, Calapan, Bicol Region, Capiz, most of Samar provinces, Tacloban, Maasin, Davao City,
  • Moist – Calayan, Basco, San Jose, Mactan,
  • Dry – rest of the country
  • Generally, near to above normal rainfall conditions were experienced over Ilocos Region, Cordillerra Administrative Region, Cagayan Valley, CALABARZON, Bicol Region, Northern and Eastern Samar, Northern Panay, Mindoro, northern Palawan, and Southern Mindanao while the rest of the country received way below to below normal rainfall (Figure 1).
  • Slightly warmer to warmer than average surface air temperatures were felt over most parts of the country (Figure 5). The maximum temperature for the month of January has reached 36.8°C in Cotabato, Maguindanao while the coldest temperature was in Baguio City at 11.2°C.
  • ENSO-neutral condition persisted during the period.
  • Planting and Transplanting (broadcasting / direct seeding- for rice, conventional way/ by rows - other crops)
  • Type I Climate (in most areas of the western parts of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Palawan) – leafy vegetables such as spinach, celery, pechay, lettuce, mustard and cabbage, rice and corn (irrigated and rainfed), watermelon, cassava, ampalaya, monggo, patani, chayote, tomatoes, potatoes, onions, eggplant, garlic, melon, condol, squash, okra, upland vegetables such as bell pepper, cauliflower, cucumber, carrots, and baguio beans. Urban gardening for vegetable planting also includes pechay, alugbati, mustard and lettuce.
  • Type II Climate (in most areas of Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, eastern part of Quezon and Aurora, eastern part of Leyte and eastern part of northern Samar, large portion of eastern Mindanao) – Rice (lowland-irrigated, rainfed, upland, palagad), okra, sincamas, squash, upo, sweet potato, gabi, ginger, radish, ubi, cassava, radish, peanut, and some leafy vegetables such as cabbage, celery, mustard and ampalaya.
  • Type IV Climate (in most areas of Batanes provinces, northeast Luzon, western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, western Leyte, northern Negros, and most of central and southern Mindanao.) Rice (lowland irrigated, rainfed, upland), corn (dry season), squash, sweet potato, cassava, beets, carrot, cucumber, ginger, sincamas, ubi, gabi, melon, eggplant, tomato, string beans, patola, pechay, cabbage, lettuce, onion, soybean, peas, okra, patani,, celery, mustard, melon, ampalaya, upo, garlic, onion, and sweet pepper.
  • Establishment Stage (germination, pre-emergence, seedling, transplanting) – in selected farm areas of the country - rice and corn (irrigated, upland and rainfed), cabbage, sweet pepper, carrots, kutchai, lettuce, eggplant, squash, okra, ginger, patola, upo, onion, melon , string beans, watermelon, mustard, celery, pechay, garlic, beets, onion, spinach, tomato, ampalaya, cucumber, sweet potatoes, mustard, patani, soybeans, ginger, ubi, beets, chayote, bell pepper, and carrot.
  • Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development) - in most farm areas of the country - Rice (irrigated lowland, upland rainfed) corn, string beans, and watermelon, spinach, ampalaya, upo, garlic, sweet pepper, potatoes, gabi, onion, squash, sweet potato, cassava, ginger, carrot, mustard, ubi, beets, kutchai, garlic, beets, celery, lettuce, string beans, mungo, patola, pechay, cabbage, bell pepper, cucumber, chayote, patola, upo, onion, and melon.
  • Flowering Stage (heading – for rice) (tasselling and silking – for corn) – rice and corn in most farm areas in Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley region, central Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan, Bicol region, western Visayas, Bohol, Davao, northern Mindanao and South Cotabato.
  • Yield Formation / Grain Fixing Stage - Rice and corn in some selected farm areas in Ilocos region, Cagayan Valley region, Central Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan, Bicol region, western and eastern Visayas, Bohol, Davao, South Cotabato, and Northern Mindanao field areas.
  • Maturing/Ripening Stagemost of the leafy and fruit vegetables and root crops in most farm areas of the country, also includes perennial fruits such as guyabano, papaya, jack fruit, dragon fruit, pineapple, banana and citrus fruits.
  • Harvesting:
  • Rice, corn - selected farm areas in the country;
  • Citrus, banana, lanzones, papaya, pineapple, guyabano broccoli, onions, cucumber, celery, cauliflower,beets, tomatoes, bell pepper, chayote, potatoes ginger, squash, calamansi, ampalaya, patola, upo, chayote, eggplant, cassava, radish, pechay, spinach, carrots, wombok cabbage, okra, mustard, lettuce, alugbati, and sweet potatoes - most field areas in the country.
  • Farm Operations:
  • Fertilizer application, cultivation, pulling of weeds, watering activities in dry areas and cleaning of farm fields are being done as well as harvesting, sun drying and milling of late harvested rice and corn. Delivery of goods in the market, transplanting and planting of grain and vegetable seedlings are all on-going in most farms of the country.
The northeast monsoon will continue to affect the whole archipelago which will bring partly cloudy to cloudy skies with isolated light rains. Apart from northeast monsoon, the weather systems that will likely affect the country will be easterlies, low pressure area, tail-end of the cold front, localized thunderstorms and tropical cyclone.
Way below to below normal rainfall conditions are expected in most parts of the country while near normal rainfall conditions are expected over the eastern part of Mindanao (Figure 4). Way below to average temperatures will most likely be experienced over Batanes and Romblon, while slightly below to below average temperatures will be experienced over Ilocos Region, Cordillera, Batangas and Eastern Samar. Moreover, slightly above to above average temperatures will be experienced over Central Luzon, Palawan, western and eastern Visayas, northern Mindanao and Davao while the rest of the country will have near average temperatures (Figure 5).
Planting the crop on time will help produce a fast-growing, uniform crop that will have higher yields and will be better able to compete with weeds and pests. The best time to plant depends on the locality, variety, water availability, and the best harvest time. Rice can either be transplanted from a nursery or direct-seeded in the field. Transplanted crops will normally take less time in the production field but 10–15 days longer for the total crop duration. In both cases, a well-prepared seedbed is needed. During transplanting stage, water is critical during the first 10-days after transplanting, as this is the time when seeds also begin to germinate. Maintaining enough water will suppress the weed growth.
Moreover, when applying a fertilizer during the vegetative stage, reduce water level to field saturation point, just enough to dissolve the fertilizer. However, do not dry the field. Do not top dress when there is impending heavy rain because the fertilizer will be washed out in the field. Keep the fields free from weeds. Weed before fertilizer application

  • Farm fields in Region 1, 9, 10, 12, Cordillera Autonomous Region are also expected to have dry soil condition. Fields in Southern Luzon (including provinces in Region 4B), Samar, Aklan and Capiz will experience wet to extremely wet soil. In Mindanao, a change in rainfall pattern similar to Northern Luzon was observed. Due to its more equatorial position, Mindanao will be drier than the latter.
  • Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 9.4ºC – 26.7ºC for upland farms while 16.6ºC – 36.4ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 18ºC – 35.2ºC; and the upland farms in Mindanao will have 14ºC – 35.1ºC and 18.4ºC - 36ºC for lowland farms.
  • Zero or one tropical cyclone is expected to develop or enter the PAR in February 2020.
  • ENSO-neutral condition is expected to continue.

Climatology and Agrometeorology Division (CAD)