During the month of November, three tropical cyclones entered the Philippine Area of responsibility and affected the country, namely: TY Quiel (Nov 5 – 9), TY Ramon (Nov 12 – 20), and TS Sarah (Nov 19-22). Most of the parts in Northern Luzon experienced above normal rainfall condition while way below to below normal rainfall conditions were observed in Visayas and Mindanao. The other weather system that affected the country were the northeast monsoon, tail-end of a cold front and low pressure areas.
The maximum total monthly rainfall recorded was in Aparri, Cagayan where it received 862.01 mm, next was in Daet, Camarines Norte with an amount of 380.6 mm and over Alabat, Quezon where 269 mm was recorded. The highest daily rainfall was recorded in Aparri, Cagayan where 366.6 mm was recorded on the seventh of November; next highest rainfall recorded was 117.4 mm in Basco, Batanes on the 18th day, followed by on the 20th day when 116.2 mm was recorded in Tuguegarao, Cagayan.
Cloudy skies prevailed in Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, Bicol Region and Eastern Visayas while the rest of the country experienced partly cloudy skies. It almost rained for the whole month in Aparri and Tuguegaro, Cagayan. Moreover, the remaining parts of Cagayan Valley, Aurora, Quezon, Bicol Region, Eastern Visayas and CARAGA experienced rain most of the days of the month.
Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas):
Wet –Calayan, Aurora, Alabat, Cam norte, Sorosogon, Catanduanes, Aklan, Capiz, Bukidnon, Regions 1, 2, CAR, 3, 4a, Palawan, Quezon City, Calapan, San Jose Mindoro, Laoag, Casiguran, Coron, Daet, Albay, Virac, Tayabas, Hinatuan
Moist –Rest of regions 2, 3, 5, 6, and NCR, CAR, Zambales, Pampanga, Tarlac, Palawan, Catarman, Catbalogan, Dipolog, Davao City, Tagum, Butuan, Lanao Del Sur, Cotabato City, NAIA, Port area, Negros Oriental & Occidental, Iloilo, Capiz, Bohol, Cebu, Regions 1, 4b, and 10, South Cotabato, Vigan, Dagupan, Baler, Subic Bay, Nueva Ecija, Infanta, Romblon, Surigao
Dry – Rest of the Country
The regions of Ilocos, Cordillera, Cagayan Valley, and Central Luzon, received above rainfall condition, meanwhile, patches of near to above rainfall condition were being experienced in Cavite, Mindoro, Palawan and Western Visayas. The eastern and central Visayas, and Mindanao received way below to below normal rainfall while patches of near normal rainfall condition in northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN and Davao Region (Figure 1).
Near to above average surface air temperatures were observed in most parts of the country. The warmest area with an observed maximum temperature in the upland was in Bukidnon at 32.5°C. The lowland farm has reached 35.7°C maximum temperature in Cotabato, Maguindanao and Zamboanga City.
The coldest areas in the upland farms for the month of November were in Baguio City at 13°C and in Bukidnon at 17.8°C. Whereas, in lowland farms the coldest minimum temperatures of 17.8°C in Itbayat, Batanes were experienced.
ENSO-neutral condition persisted during the month of October (Figure 2).
Land Preparation (in selected farm areas still on-going). Rice & Corn: Irrigated and rainfed fields/ Vegetable farms/plot gardens.
Planting (broadcasting / direct seeding- for rice, conventional way/ by rows - other crops)
Type I Climate(in selected areas of the western parts of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Palawan) – Rice (irrigated and rainfed), corn, mungo, celery, pechay, upo, garlic, onion, watermelon, cauliflower, cadios, melon, sweet potato, gabi, ginger, onion, melon, chayote, eggplant, squash, mustard, okra, sincamas, upland vegetables such as white potato, celery, sweet peas and cucumber.
Type II Climate(in selected areas of Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, eastern part of Quezon and Aurora, eastern part of Leyte and eastern part of northern Samar, large portion of eastern Mindanao) – Rice (lowland-irrigated, rainfed, upland, palagad), melon, watermelon, sincamas, cauliflower, cucumber, soybeans, string beans, lettuce, mustard, okra, pechay, cabbage, ginger, garlic, eggplant, radish, patola, spinach, ampalaya, upo, onion, squash, sweet pepper, white potato , talinum, gabi, squash, soybean, sweet potato, cassava and ubi,
Type IV Climate(in selected areas of Batanes provinces, northeast Luzon, western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, western Leyte, northern Negros, and most of central and southern Mindanao.) Rice (lowland irrigated, rainfed, upland), corn (dry season), cucumber, ginger, sincamas, melon, eggplant, tomato, beans, patola, pechay, cabbage, lettuce, ampalaya, upo, garlic, onion, squash, sweet potato, sweet pepper, potato, onion, soybean, okra, patani, string beans, celery, cauliflower, mustard, ubi, beets, carrot, mustard, gabi and cassava.
Establishment Stage(germination, pre-emergence, seedling, transplanting) – in selected farm areas of the country - rice and corn (irrigated, upland and rainfed), mungo, celery, pechay, garlic, beets, onion, spinach, lettuce, melon, tomato, ampalaya, cucumber, upo, squash, sweet pepper, potatoes, cabbage, mustard, ginger, ubi beets, chayote, carrot and okra.
Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development)- in most farm areas of the country - Rice (irrigated lowland, upland rainfed) corn, celery, lettuce, string beans, mungo, patola, pechay, cabbage, cucumber, spinach, melon, ampalaya, upo, garlic, onion, squash, sweet potato, sweet pepper, potatoes, gabi, cassava, ginger, carrot, mustard, ubi , beets and chayote.
Flowering Stage (heading – for rice) (tasselling and silking – for corn) – rice and corn in some selected farm areas in Regions 1, 2 and 3, Mindoro, Palawan, Bicol region, western Visayas, Bohol, Davao and South Cotabato.
Yield Formation / Grain Fixing Stage - rice and corn in some of the farm areas in Regions 1 and 2, Central Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan, Bicol region, western and eastern Visayas, Bohol, Davao, South Cotabato, Northern Mindanao and Surigao farm areas.
Maturing/Ripening Stage – rice, corn, most of the leafy and fruit vegetables and root crops in major farm arbboneas in Ilocos and Cagayan Valley region, Central Luzon, Mindoro, Palawan, Bicol region, western and eastern Visayas, Bohol, Davao, South Cotabato and Surigao farm areas. Ripening of durian, mangoes, duhat, guyabano papaya, jack fruit, dragon fruit, pineapple, banana, most of leafy and fruit vegetables like ampalaya, eggplant, patola and tomatotes –most parts of the country.
Cleaning of farm areas, renovation of farm structures destroyed by heavy rains, fertilizer application, cultivation, watering activities and weeding in dry areas. Harvesting, sun drying, milling late harvested rice. Delivery of goods in the market, transplanting and planting – on-going in most farms of the country.
During the month of November, the northeast monsoon (locally known as “Amihan”) which is characterized by northeasterly wind flow will affect the country*. The cold, dry air mass from Siberia collects moisture over the Pacific Ocean that brings widespread cloudiness with rainshowers over the eastern side of the archipelago. Generally, near normal rainfall condition (Figure 4) is expected in most parts of the country while below normal in most parts of Luzon. Moreover, near to above average temperature is predicted in large areas of the archipelago while below to slightly below average temperature is expected in extreme Northern Luzon and in Romblon (Figure 5)*. During this time, most of the rice are in transplanting stage. Rice can either be transplanted from a nursery or direct-seeded in the field. Transplanted crops will normally take less time in the production field but 10–15 days longer for the total crop duration. In both cases, a well prepared seedbed is needed.
Large part of the farm areas in eastern section of Luzon including eastern Samar will have wet soil
condition while most of the fields over the rest of Visayas and Mindanao will experience moist soil
condition. Dry soil is expected over parts of Zamboanga, parts of Davao, Surigao del Sur and General
One or two tropical cyclones are expected to develop or enter the PAR on December.
Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 9ºC – 27ºC for upland farms and 17ºC - 36ºC for lowland farms in December; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 18ºC – 35ºC; and the upland farms in Mindanao will have 15ºC – 34ºC and 19ºC - 37ºC for lowland farms.
ENSO-neutral condition is expected to continue until December of this year
MA. FE. E. VILLAMORA
OIC, FWSS, CAD
EDNA L. JUANILLO
Climatology and Agrometeorology Division (CAD)