During the month of December, the weather systems that affected the country were the northeast monsoon (NE), tail-end-of a frontal system, easterlies, localized thunderstorms, low pressure areas (LPAs) and Tropical Depression (TD) “Vicky” (18-21 Dec).
Significant amount of observed rainfall was recorded over the northern and eastern sections of the archipelago. Moreover, TD “Vicky” has entered and developed inside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR). It crossed the country and affected Palawan, Samar provinces, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, CARAGA, Davao Region, Northern Mindanao, Zamboanga Peninsula, Lanao del Sur and North Cotabato.
Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas):
Wet – most areas of the country
Moist – Pampanga, Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), Cabanatuan, National Capital Region (NCR), Cavite, Masbate, Southern Samar, Aborlan, Maguindanao
Near to above normal rainfall conditions were observed over the whole archipelago (Figure 1). Guiuan Synoptic Station recorded the highest total monthly rainfall (1089.9 mm) followed by Juban Synoptic Station (1084.8 mm) and Casiguran Synoptic Station (1017.3 mm).
Slightly above to above average surface air temperatures were generally felt in most parts of the country (Figure 2). The highest maximum temperature for the month of December has reached 35.7°C in Cotabato City (Dec. 12) while the coldest temperature of 12.0°C was recorded in Baguio City (Dec. 31).
Land and Seedbed Preparation – (irrigated rice and corn fields, other cash crop plantation, small and medium farm areas)
Farmers continue to prepare the land and seedbeds for irrigated, rainfed and upland farms in most areas of the country
Planting and Transplanting (broadcasting / direct seeding – for rice, corn, conventional way/ by rows - other cash crops)
Type I Climate (western parts of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Palawan) – patani, bountiful beans, tugue, pechay, cabbage, lettuce, cauliflower, mustard, munggo, melon, garlic, sweet pepper, sincamas, eggplant, ampalaya, beets, muskmelon, tomato, cucumber, rice and dry season corn
Type II Climate (Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, eastern part of Quezon and Aurora, eastern part of Leyte and eastern part of Northern Samar, large portion of eastern Mindanao) – rice, corn, watermelon, bountiful beans, lettuce, celery, mustard, pechay, cowpea, cabbage, cassava, muskmelon sweet pepper, celery, cauliflower, eggplant, ampalaya, upo, okra, sweet pepper, garlic, munggo, cucumber and tomato
Type III Climate (western part of Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, east of Mt. Province, southern Quezon, Bondoc Peninsula, Masbate, Romblon, northeast Panay, eastern Negros, central and southern Cebu, part of northern Mindanao, most of eastern Palawan)– rice, corn, chayote, sweet potato, eggplant, ginger, ampalaya, okra, squash, sweet pepper, gabi, radish, cauliflower, patola, garlic, upo, beets, cassava, cucumber, watermelon, lettuce, bountiful beans, celery, chayote, cauliflower, mustard, melon, patani, sitao, pechay, soybean and muskmelon
Type IV Climate (Batanes provinces, northeast Luzon, western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, western Leyte, northern Negros, and most of central and southern Mindanao) – irrigated rice, corn, patola, okra, squash, cucumber, sweet potato, gabi, ampalaya, radish, sweet peas, endive, lettuce, eggplant, gabi, beets, sweet pepper, upo, bountiful beans, patani, peanut, cadios, chayote and cowpea
High yielding cash crops such as sweet potato, chayote, garlic, carrot, gabi, onion, squash, lettuce, eggplant, condol, mustard, cabbage, sweet pepper, cassava, potato, okra, ginger, peanut, patola, sitao, mustard, cadios, cauliflower, ubi, bountiful beans, pepper and cucumber – in most farm areas of the country
Maturing/Ripening/ Harvesting Stage
Seasonal fruits and vegetables such as citrus, guyabano, papaya, pineapple, calamansi, and banana, onion leeks, red onion, carrot, native pechay, cauliflower, broccoli, celery, alugbati, malunggay, mustard, lettuce, spinach, chayote, baguio beans, sitao, white onion, upo, sweet pepper, gabi, sweet potato, ubi, arrowroot, cassava, ginger, potato, cassava, sweet potato, eggplant, wombok cabbage, tomato, lettuce and kangkong
Farm Operations: (some farm activities are affected by Community Quarantine)
Land and seedbed preparations, planting and transplanting of seedlings, fertilizer application, drying and milling of rice
Harvesting of matured crops, cleaning and repairing of farm canals, cultivating of soil, and spraying of weedicide and herbicide
In this time of COVID-19 pandemic, the agricultural technicians, farmers and farm enthusiasts may continue to share and browse some tips and additional knowledge on potential crop production, early warning for pests and diseases infestations and water management strategies for specific areas by visiting the website of SARAI project (https://sarai.ph) and search KlimAgrikultura by ACIAR project. For daily farm weather and climate conditions, they can also visit PAGASA website (http://bagong.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/) and/or see the Payong PAGASA mobile application.
The weather systems that will likely affect the whole country during the month of January are the northeast monsoon (NE), tail-end of frontal system, intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), low pressure areas (LPAs), localized thunderstorms, easterlies and zero or one tropical cyclone may enter or develop inside the PAR.
Above normal rainfall condition will likely be experienced over NCR, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Visayas and Mindanao while the remaining portions of Luzon will receive below to near normal rainfall (Figure 4).
Surges of northeast monsoon may be felt throughout the period which could bring cooler temperature.
Slightly cooler to near average temperatures are expected over most parts of the country during the period (Figure 5).
Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 9.1ºC – 26.7ºC for upland farms while 13.8ºC – 35.4ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 20.0ºC – 35.3ºC; and the upland farms in Mindanao will have 15.0ºC – 34.0ºC and 19.0ºC – 36.1ºC for lowland farms.
ENSO Alert System Status is in La Niña Advisory. La Niña further strengthened and will likely continue through Jan-Feb-March 2021 with rising probability of returning to ENSO-neutral during April-May-June 2021 (Figure 6). Increased likelihood of above normal rainfall conditions over highly vulnerable areas could lead to adverse impacts.
PAGASA will continue to closely monitor the climate conditions that may affect the country and updates shall be issued as appropriate. For further information, please contact the Climatology and Agrometeorology Division (CAD) at telephone number 8284-0800, local 905.