Monthly Philippine Agro-climatic Review and Outlook

January 2024

  • During the month of January, the weather systems that affected the country were the northeast monsoon, shear line, low pressure area, easterlies, and localized thunderstorms.
  • Way below to below normal rainfall conditions were experienced over most areas of the country except for near to above rainfall conditions recorded over extreme Northern Luzon, Pampanga, southern part of Quezon, northern Palawan, Romblon, Bicol Region, northern part of Panay, Northern Samar and most areas of Mindanao (Figure 1). Surigao City recorded the highest rainfall amount for the month of January (794.4 mm), followed by Tagum (681.8 mm) and Catarman Synoptic Station (572.4 mm).
  • Based on the Situational Report No. 1 for El Niño of the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council (NDRRMC), damages to agriculture with an estimated cost of Php 108,727,672.93 with 2,580 affected farmers/fisherfolks and 2,154.43 hectares of crops.
  • Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas; Figure 3): (NOT YET AVAILABLE)
      • Wet – Batanes, Quezon, Albay, Camarines Norte, Catanduanes, Sorsogon, Capiz, most of Eastern Visayas, Davao Region, Surigao del Norte, and Agusan del Norte
      • Moist – Lanao del Sur, Aurora, Romblon, Oriental Mindoro, Samar, Zamboanga del Norte Bukidnon, and most of BARMM
      • Dry – North Cotabato, Ilocos Region, CAR, NCR, Cagayan Valley, the Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Central Visayas, SOCCSKSARGEN, and rest of the country
  • Generally, near average to above average surface air temperatures were observed in the country (Figure 2). San Jose, Occidental Mindoro Synoptic Station recorded the highest maximum temperature of 36.0°C (January 7) while the coldest temperature was recorded in BSU La Trinidad Synoptic Station at 9.7°C (January 28).
  • Zamboanga City Synoptic Station in Zamboanga obtained the highest heat index during the month of January (44°C on January 19) followed by Catarman Synoptic Station in Northern Samar (43°C on January 2) and Masbate City Synoptic Station in Masbate (43°C on January 9). The Heat Index is a human discomfort index that gives the apparent temperature on what humans perceive or feel as the temperature (from the surroundings) affecting the body. High air temperature and high relative humidity results to high apparent temperature.
  • Crop Stage/ Farm Activities for January 2024
    Land and Seedbed Preparation (including preparation for garden plot, urban gardening, and upland farms), (irrigated and rainfed farms)
  • Ilocos Region, Cordillera Administrative Region, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga, and BARMM
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, SOCCSKSARGEN Davao Region, BARMM
  • cucumber, eggplant, okra, patola, squash, tomato, upo, cowpea, cadios, mung bean, patani, string bean, sweet potato, taro, ginger, garlic, onion, sweet pepper, soybean, lettuce, mustard, pechay, carrot, potato, talinum, cassava, okra, watermelon, melon, winged beans, ginger, mushroom, mung bean, snap bean, cow pea, sugarcane, celery, carrot, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, pepper, potato, muskmelon, ampalaya, chayote, chili, lettuce, mushroom, tomato, mustard, talinum, cauliflower, cabbage, upo
  • Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development; growing – other cash rops)
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga, BARMM
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, CALABARZON, Northern Mindanao
  • lemon, strawberry, banana, papaya, coffee, cacao, chayote, cucumber, cabbage,
    broccoli, lettuce, pechay, carrot,
    snap peas, habichuelas, talinum, celery, spring onions, mustard calamansi, mango, jackfruit, ampalaya, patola, upo, sweet potato, chili, winged bean, string bean, tomato, ginger, eggplant, mushroom, patola, mung bean, pechay, patola, upo, cashew, cadios, star apple, sugarcane, cow pea, taro, onion, condol, snap bean, mushroom, cassava, pili, coconut, ubi, okra, squash, cadios, arrowroot, patani, abaca, lanzones, rambutan, garlic, pineapple, dragon fruit, lettuce, pechay, celery, ginger, mung bean, muskmelon, pepper
  • Flowering Stage (Heading – rice; Tasseling/Silking – corn)
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Zamboanga Peninsula, SOCCSKSARGEN
  • Corn – Ilocos Region , CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Northern Mindanao, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga
  • Maturing/Ripening
  • Rice – Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Davao Region
  • Corn – MIMAROPA, Davao Region, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga
  • Harvesting Stage
  • Corn – Cagayan Valley, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Central Visayas
  • lemon, strawberry, banana, papaya, coffee, cacao, chayote, cucumber, cabbage,
    broccoli, lettuce, pechay, carrot, snap peas, habichuelas, talinum, celery, spring onions, mustard, calamansi, dalandan, kinchay, squash, string bean, pechay, onion leeks, strawberry, coffee, banana, spring onion, baguio beans, broccoli, cucumber, tomato, guyabano, watermelon, melon,
    guava, honeydew, ampalaya, eggplant, okra, upo, patola, leafy vegetables, root crops, sigarilyas, coconut, mango, chili, malunggay, camote tops, chili, kangkong, lemongrass, pandan, sampaloc, melon, watermelon, Chinese melon, arugula, mustard, peanut, guava, coconut, eggplant, okra, string bean, lettuce, patola, squash, ampalaya, winged bean, string bean, peanut, cashew, winged bean, guava, citrus, alugbati, malunggay, arrowroot, taro, jackfruit, lanzones, mangosteen, cucurbits, patani, onion leeks, carrot, onion leeks, habichuelas, potato
  • Farm Operations:
  • Land cultivation and preparation
  • Irrigation and watering activities
  • Pruning
  • Removal of weeds
  • Spraying of herbicides, pesticides and insecticides
  • Applying of fertilizers
  • Field monitoring
  • Delivery of fresh produce
  • Harvesting and milling of sugarcane
  • Copra making
  • Drying and milling of rice and corn
  • Cleaning of creeks, canals and dikes
  • Mechanical drying
  • The agricultural technicians, farmers, and farm enthusiasts may continue to browse some tips and additional knowledge on potential crop production, early warning for pest and disease infestations and water management strategies for specific areas by visiting the website of Department of Agriculture in their respective regions. For daily farm weather and climate conditions, you may visit PAGASA website (
  • The weather systems that will likely affect the country during the month of February are the northeast monsoon, shear line, easterlies, low pressure areas (LPAs), localized thunderstorms, and none or one (0 or 1) tropical cyclone (TC) may enter or develop inside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR).
  • As shown in Figure 4, way below to below normal rainfall conditions will likely be experienced in most parts of the country. Meanwhile, near normal conditions will be expected over Caraga and most parts of the Davao Region.
  • Generally, near to slightly above average temperatures will be experienced in most areas of the archipelago. Meanwhile, warmer temperatures will be experienced over Dipolog and Misamis Oriental while slightly below above average temperatures will be experienced over extreme Northern Luzon, Camarines Norte, Masbate, Bohol, Southern Leyte, and SOCCKSARGEN. Cold temperature surges are also expected to occur during the Northeast monsoon season (Figure 5).
  • Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 9.4ºC – 27.2ºC for upland farms while 13.0ºC – 35.8ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 18.8ºC – 36.7ºC; while the upland farms in Mindanao will have 12.1ºC – 35.6ºC and 17.6ºC – 37.5ºC for lowland farms.
  • El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Alert and Warning System: EL NIÑO ADVISORY No. 7 (Figure 6). A strong El Niño is expected to continue through Jan-Feb 2024. Majority of global climate models suggest that El Nino will likely persist until March-April-May 20024 season with a transition to ENSO-neutral in April-May-June 2024 season.
  • El Niño increases the likelihood of below-normal rainfall conditions, which could bring negative impacts (such as dry spells and droughts) in some areas of the country which will likely be manifested in the first quarter of the year. Mulching must be done to prevent the rapid loss of soil moisture and to maintain the good growing condition of crops.
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