Monthly Philippine Agro-climatic Review and Outlook

March 2023


  • During the month of February, the weather systems that affected the country were the northeast (NE) monsoon, shear line, low pressure areas (LPAs), easterlies. intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), and localized thunderstorms.
  • Generally, cloudy skies with scattered rainshowers and thunderstorms were most felt over Eastern Visayas, and Mindanao while cloudy skies with light rains were observed over Northern Luzon. Partly cloudy to cloudy skies with light rains were experienced over the rest of Luzon and remaining parts of Visayas. Flooding incidents were reported in some areas in Mindanao due to heavy rainfall.
  • Near to above normal rainfall conditions were experienced in most parts the country. Below normal rainfall conditions were experienced in most parts of MIMAROPA, provinces of Aurora, some parts of Cavite, and most parts of southern Mindanao including some parts of Zamboanga Peninsula and SOCCSKSARGEN while way below normal rainfall was observed in Ilocos Norte, Zambales, most parts of Metro Manila, Occidental Mindoro, and southern Palawan. Hinatuan Synoptic Station in Surigao del Sur recorded the highest rainfall amount for the month of February (766.7 mm), followed by Surigao Synoptic Station in Surigao del Norte (699.9 mm) and Borongan Synoptic Station, Eastern Samar (676.8 mm).
  • Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas):
    • Wet – Calayan, Quezon, Romblon, Bicol Region, Panay Island, Bohol, Eastern Visayas, northern portion of Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Tagum and Caraga
    • Moist – Aparri, Basco, Aurora, Negros Oriental, rest of the region in Zamboanga Peninsula and Davao Region
    • Dry – Rest of the country
  • Generally, near average surface air temperatures were felt in most parts of the country except for cooler than average surface temperatures that were observed in Romblon and Maasin. San Jose Synoptic Station, Occidental Mindoro recorded the highest maximum temperature of 36.0°C (February 7) while the coldest temperature was recorded in BSU Agromet Station at 8.7°C (February 12) (Figure 2).
  • La Niña Advisory #17 was issued on 06 February 2023. La Nina is weakening across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Most of the climate models suggest that La Niña will persist until January-February-March (JFM) 2023 season and then a transition to ENSO-neutral conditions is likely afterward. La Niña increases the likelihood of having above normal rainfall conditions that could lead to potential adverse impacts (such as heavy rainfall, flashfloods and landslides) over highly vulnerable areas. Adverse impacts such as floods and landslides are likely to occur over the vulnerable areas and sectors of the society.
Land and Seedbed Preparation (including preparation for garden plot, urban gardening, and upland farms), (irrigated and rainfed farms)
  • Ilocos Region, Cagayan Valley, Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), , CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, , Caraga, BARMM
Planting and Transplanting (broadcasting / direct seeding – for rice, corn, conventional way/ by rows - other cash crops)
  • Type I Climate (western parts of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Palawan) – cassava, taro, ubi, sweet potato, sweet, pepper, cassava, string bean, patola, okra, squash, tomato, upo, pepper, pechay, alugbati, malunggay, ampalaya, chili, squash, garlic, sweet pepper, chili, eggplant, upo, ginger, onion, watermelon, and melon.
  • Type II Climate (Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, eastern part of Quezon and Aurora, eastern part of Leyte and eastern part of Northern Samar, and large portion of eastern Mindanao) – squash, upo, onion, taro, ginger, soybean, cabbage, cauliflower, ampalaya, cucumber, eggplant, sweet potato, garlic, sweet pepper, chili, squash, onion, cassava, soybean, patola, okra, peanut, cassava, chayote, malunggay melon, papaya, banana, pineapple, root crops, and other leafy vegetables.
  • Type III Climate (western part of Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, east of Mt. Province, southern Quezon, Bondoc Peninsula, Masbate, Romblon, northeast Panay, eastern Negros, central and southern Cebu, part of northern Mindanao, and most of eastern Palawan) – squash, upo, onion, taro, ginger, soybean, cabbage, cauliflower, ampalaya, cucumber, eggplant, lettuce, cabbage, wombok, radish, onion leeks, pechay, sweet pepper, cassava, string bean, patola, okra, squash, tomato, carrots, peanuts, cauliflower, sweet pepper, pechay, string bean, mung bean, alugbati, kangkong, malunggay coconut, watermelon, melon, banana, papaya and other root crops.
  • Type IV Climate (Batanes provinces, northeast Luzon, western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, western Leyte, northern Negros, and most of central and southern Mindanao) – squash, okra, eggplant, bottle gourd, bitter, gourd, tomato, onion, lettuce, garlic, mustard, pechay, cabbage, patola, coconut, tomato, chayote, patani, cassava, taro, radish, eggplant, peanut, cowpea, sweet pepper, lettuce, carrot, upo, cauliflower, cucumber, cassava, sweet potatoes, corn banana, papaya, pomelo, melon, watermelon and other root crops .
Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development)
  • Rice – Cagayan Valley, Central Luzon, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, SOCCSKSARGEN, Caraga, BARMM
  • Corn – MIMAROPA, Central Visayas, SOCCSKSARGEN, BARMM
Flowering Stage (Heading – rice; Tasseling/Silking – corn)
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Central Visayas, Caraga, BARMM
  • Corn – CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Central Visayas, Caraga,
Maturing/Ripening/Harvesting Stage
  • Rice – Ilocos Region, Central Luzon, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Western Visayas, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao, Caraga,
  • Corn – Ilocos Region, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Bicol Region, Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas, Caraga, BARMM
  • Cabbage, tomato, squash, carrot, sweet potato, radish, eggplant, garlic, ginger, onion, broccoli, baguio beans, cauliflower, sweet peas, string beans, okra, patola, ampalaya, upo, cassava, ubi, taro, alugbati, lettuce, pechay, lettuce, pako leaves, jute leaves, malunggay, kutchai, camote tops, lemon grass, kangkong, mustard, chayote, peanut, fern leaves, chili, pepper, sweet pepper, coffee, cacao, calamansi, cucurbits, cucumber, wild black berries papaya, banana, avocado, marang, guava, mangosteen, coconut, durian, rambutan, melon, watermelon, lanzones, jackfruit, guyabano, pomelo, pineapple, and mango
Farm Operations:
  • Watering of plants
  • Irrigation
  • Fertilizer application
  • Removal of weeds
  • Cultivation of farm
  • Pest and disease management
  • Copra making
  • Copra drying
  • Cleaning of canals and dikes
  • Urban Gardening
  • Drying, threshing and milling of rice
  • Milling of Sugarcane
  • Water management
  • Curing and piling of tobacco
  • Delivery of fresh produce in the market

The agricultural technicians, farmers, and farm enthusiasts may continue to browse some tips and additional knowledge on potential crop production, early warning for pest and disease infestations and water management strategies for specific areas by visiting the website of Project SARAi ( For daily farm weather and climate conditions, you may visit PAGASA website(
  • The weather systems that will likely affect the country during the month of March are the northeast (NE) monsoon, shear line, easterlies, low pressure areas (LPAs), Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), ridge of (HPA) high pressure area, localized thunderstorms, and zero or one tropical cyclone (TC) may enter or develop inside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR).
  • Generally, near to above normal rainfall conditions are likely in most parts of the country except for the western sections of Luzon that may receive way below to below normal rainfall conditions. High probability of above normal rainfall conditions in most parts of the country (Figure 4)
  • Generally, below average to above average surface air temperatures will prevail over the whole archipelago. Increasing in the surface temperature will be felt for the month of March.
  • Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 10.8ºC – 28.1ºC for upland farms while 16.5ºC – 37.8ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 19.7ºC – 36.0ºC; while the upland farms in Mindanao will have 14.0ºC – 34.3ºC and 19.0ºC – 37.8ºC for lowland farms.
PAGASA will continue to closely monitor the climate conditions that may affect the country and updates shall be issued as appropriate. For further information, please contact the Climatology and Agrometeorology Division (CAD) at telephone number 8284-0800, local 905.

Cropping Calendar from Department of Agriculture
Images courtesy of PAGASA CAD-CLIMPS

Issued: Februaryy 2023
Farm Weather Services Section (FWSS))
Climatology and Agrometeorology Division (CAD)
Prepared by: Uploaded by: Checked / Verified by: Approved by:




Chief, CAD