Monthly Philippine Agro-climatic Review and Outlook

October 2021


  • During the month of October, the weather systems that affected the country were the southwest (SW) monsoon, easterlies, intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), low pressure areas (LPAs), tropical cyclones (TCs), northeast (NE) monsoon, tail-end of frontal system, and localized thunderstorms.

  • Three TCs entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR): Tropical Depression (TD) “Lannie” (Oct 4-6), Severe Tropical Storm (STS) “Maring” (Oct 7-13), and TD Nando (Oct 9). The first two (2) TCs made landfall and caused bad weather with gusty winds over the affected areas while the circulation of TD “Nando” was merged to STS “Maring” on 10 October 2021. Cloudy skies with scattered rainshowers and thunderstorms were also experienced in most parts of the country due to ITCZ. On 15 October 2021, the termination of SW monsoon was officially announced. After this, the onset of the NE monsoon was declared on 25 October 2021.
  • Derived Soil Moisture Condition (rainfed areas):
    • Wet – Most areas of the country
    • Moist – Ilocos Region, rest of Cagayan Valley, CAR, Zambales, southern portion of NCR, Cavite, Pag-asa Island, Cuyo, Misamis Oriental
    • Dry – Zamboanga del Sur, General Santos and Manila
  • Near to above normal rainfall conditions were experienced over most parts of the country except in some parts of Bataan, Pampanga, Bulacan, Cavite, Rizal and Metro Manila where below normal rainfall conditions were observed (Figure 1). BSU La Trinidad, Benguet Agromet Station recorded the highest total monthly rainfall (903.7 mm), followed by Baguio City, Benguet Synoptic Station (758.0 mm).
  • Near to above average surface temperatures were generally felt in most parts of the country except in some areas in Southern Luzon, Southern Leyte and Surigao del Norte where below to slightly below average temperatures were observed (Figure 2). The highest maximum temperature for the month of October has reached 36.6°C in Catbalogan, Samar (October 31) while the coldest temperature of 15.5°C was recorded in BSU La Trinidad, Benguet Agromet Station (October 27).
  • La Niña Advisory #1 was issued on 15 October 2021, indicating that La Niña has developed in the tropical Pacific
  • Land and Seedbed Preparation (irrigated and rainfed farms)
  • Being done in most parts of the country
  • Ongoing for other high value crops, including urban gardening, and upland farms in most parts of the country
  • Planting and Transplanting (broadcasting / direct seeding – for rice, corn, conventional way/ by rows - other cash crops)
  • Type I Climate (western parts of Luzon, Mindoro, Negros and Palawan) – lowland rice, corn, cabbage, eggplant cauliflower, tomato, celery, patani, sweet pepper, cucumber, melon, chayote, muskmelon, sweet pea, talinum, kutchai, spinach, condol, radish, sincamas, togue, bitter gourd, string bean, patola, and squash.
  • Type II Climate (Catanduanes, Sorsogon, eastern part of Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, eastern part of Quezon and Aurora, eastern part of Leyte and eastern part of Northern Samar, and large portion of eastern Mindanao) – upland rice, corn, okra, squash, gabi, ginger, radish, sincamas, ubi, cassava, patola, upo, bountiful beans, sweet potato, peanut, cucumber, cabbage, tapilan, bitter gourd, and celery.
  • Type III Climate (western part of Cagayan, Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, east of Mt. Province, southern Quezon, Bondoc Peninsula, Masbate, Romblon, northeast Panay, eastern Negros, central and southern Cebu, part of northern Mindanao, and most of eastern Palawan) – upland rice, sweet pepper, sweet pea, cabbage, patani, eggplant, cauliflower, tomato, carrot, muskmelon, talinum, kutchai, spinach, chayote, celery, condol, corn, munggo, garlic, lettuce, bitter gourd, okra, ginger, cadios, peanut, cabbage, upo, white potato, gabi, and cucumber
  • Type IV Climate (Batanes provinces, northeast Luzon, western Camarines Norte and Camarines Sur, Albay, eastern Mindoro, Marinduque, western Leyte, northern Negros, and most of central and southern Mindanao) – irrigated rice, corn, lettuce, chayote, peanut, munggo, upo, okra, patola, cabbage, carrot, sweet pepper, white potato, eggplant, gabi, watermelon, cucumber, onion, beets, cauliflower, ginger, talinum, bountiful beans, tomato, sweet potato, squash, bitter gourd, radish, tomato, mustard, melon, and garlic.
  • Establishment Stage (germination, pre-emergence, seedling, transplanting)
  • Rice and corn – in selected farm rice areas of the country
  • Other crops such as – bitter gourd, radish, beets, okra, patola, cabbage, upo, tomato, carrot, mustard, melon, white potato, garlic squash, gabi, ginger, sincamas, ubi, cassava, upland rice, bountiful beans, sweet potato, peanut, cucumber, tapilan, and celery
  • Vegetative Stage (tillering, head development)
  • Rice and corn – selected farms in the country
  • Other crops such as tomato, munggo, ubi, ginger, cabbage, cucumber, cauliflower, squash, gabi, onion, pechay, mustard, eggplant, sweet potato, patola, carrot, okra, and sweet pepper in most vegetable farm areas of the country
  • Flowering Stage (Heading – rice; Tasseling/Silking – corn) – in different irrigated and rainfed farm areas of the country
  • Other crops such as patola, bitter gourd, squash, okra, dragon fruit, mangosteen, rambutan, cotton, tomato, bountiful beans, gabi, celery, cauliflower, banana, cabbage, cucumber, sweet potato, papaya, peanut, sweet pea, upo, radish, patani, beets, guyabano, lettuce, and sweet pepper in different farm areas of the country
  • Maturing/Ripening/ Harvesting Stage – most farm rice areas of the country
  • Luzon:
  • Irrigated rice, corn, papaya, banana, rambutan, lanzones, guyabano, cassava, dragon fruit, onion, tomato, upo, squash, bitter gourd, eggplant, cabbage, lettuce, Chinese pechay, native pechay, seguidillas, patola, string bean, sweet potato, calamansi, avocado, ginger, carrot, wombok cabbage, bell pepper, marble potato, radish, white potato, cucumber, celery, sugar beets, leeks, French beans, malunggay, alugbati, and camote tops
  • Visayas:
  • Irrigated rice, sugarcane, sweet corn, mango, rambutan, santol, calamansi, cotton fruit, avocado, pineapple, bitter gourd, squash, guyabano, string bean, chayote, upo, eggplant, okra, ginger, cucumber, tomato, banana, siniguelas, papaya, Chinese pechay, patola, cabbage, malunggay, red and white onions, cassava, white potato, and sweet potato
  • Mindanao:
  • Irrigated rice, pineapple, avocado, corn, upo, mustard, squash, cucumber, eggplant, string bean, radish, bitter gourd, papaya, banana, durian, marang, mangosteen, mango, guyabano, pomelo, coconut fruit, melon, watermelon, okra, carrot, cauliflower, pechay, chayote, potato, lettuce, cucumber, tomato, and ginger
  • Farm Operations: (some farm activities are affected by TD “Lannie” and STS “Maring’’ particularly in Northern Luzon)
  • Drained flooded farm areas, removed impediments on canals and ditches, and repaired levees destroyed by strong winds, heavy rains and floods;
  • Regularly cleaned creeks, canals and ditches to provide natural flow of water specially during heavy rainfall;
  • Prepared land and seedbeds, planted, and transplanted different crops;
  • Harvested, sun-dried, milled, stored, and delivered grains and fresh produce in the marketplace;
  • Performed watering and irrigation activities using pump in dry fields;
  • In this time of COVID-19 pandemic, the agricultural technicians, farmers, and farm enthusiasts may continue to share and browse some tips and additional knowledge on potential crop production, early warning for pests and diseases infestations and water management strategies for specific areas by visiting the website of SARAI project ( and search KlimAgrikultura by ACIAR project. For daily farm weather and climate conditions, they can also visit PAGASA website (
  • The weather systems that will likely affect the whole country during the month of November are the low pressure areas (LPAs), northeast (NE) monsoon, tail-end of frontal system, intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), easterlies, localized thunderstorms, and two or three tropical cyclones (TCs) may enter or develop inside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR).
  • Generally, near to above normal rainfall conditions are expected over the whole country (Figure 4).
  • Near to warmer than average temperatures will be experienced over the entire archipelago (Figure 5).
  • Luzon will have extreme temperature range of 12.0ºC – 27.5ºC for upland farms while 15.9ºC – 39.4ºC for other farms in Luzon; the lowland farms in Visayas will have 20.1ºC – 37.6ºC; and the upland farms in Mindanao will have 15.3ºC – 33.6ºC and 19.0ºC – 37.0ºC for lowland farms.
  • La Niña is present in the tropical Pacific and likely to persist until January – February – March 2022 season
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Chief, CAD